This step develops during the occurrence of the degradation and death of 85-90% of the B cells.Many patients after the insulin treatment fall into remission of the disease (the “diabetic honeymoon”).
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The most common occurrence of IDDM clinically is preceded by the following viral infections: measles (rubella virus has a tropism to the islets of the pancreas, accumulates, and can be replicated in them), Coxsackievirus and hepatitis B virus (can be replicated in the insular apparatus), mumps (1-2 years after the epidemic of mumps, the incidence of IDDM in children dramatically increases), infectious mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, etc.
The role of viral infection is confirmed by seasonality in the incidence of IDDM development (often, the first diagnosed cases of IDDM among children occur in autumn and winter months, with a peak incidence in October and January), the detection of high titers of antibodies to the virus in the blood of patients with IDDM, and the detection by immunofluorescent methods for studying viral particles in the islets of Langerhans in people who have died of IDDM.
There are three common forms of diabetes: type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes.
This paper mainly discusses these major forms of diabetes considering their causes and consequences.Introduction Diabetes (or Diabetes mellitus) is a complex group of diseases caused by a number of reasons.Individuals suffering from diabetes have hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) either because there is low production of insulin or body cells do not use the produced insulin.Type 2 Diabetes In type 2 diabetes mellitus, there is low production of insulin by the body cells or the body does not effectively make use of the produced insulin.Type 2 diabetes is known to be the commonest type of diabetes; in fact, 90% of diabetes sufferers have type 2 diabetes (World Health Organization, 1999).A crucial point in this step is the expression of B cells HLA-DR-antigen and glutamic acid, and therefore, they become autoantigens that cause the development of autoimmune response reactions.Third stage – the stage of the active immunological process with formation of antibodies to B cells, insulin and autoimmune insulitis development.About 350 million people suffer from diabetes globally (Danaei et al., 2011).The World Health Organization (1999) has predicted that diabetes will rise to the top seventh cause of death worldwide by 2030.Type 1 Diabetes In type 1 diabetes mellitus, body cells fail to produce insulin due to a compromised immune system causing damage to the cells where production of insulin takes place.The cause and prevention of type 1 diabetes are not particularly known; however, it is suspected to be a consequence of certain genetic factors.