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Synthetic routes are proposed through generalization of millions of published chemical reactions and validated in silico to maximize their likelihood of success.Additional implementation details are determined by expert chemists and recorded in reusable recipe files, which are executed by a modular continuous-flow platform that is automatically reconfigured by a robotic arm to set up the required unit operations and carry out the reaction.
Gattermann, The Macmillan Company New York, 1937; p.
Progress in automated synthesis of organic compounds has been proceeding along parallel tracks.
They paired a retrosynthesis prediction algorithm with a robotically reconfigurable flow apparatus.
Human intervention was still required to supplement the predictor with practical considerations such as solvent choice and precise stoichiometry, although predictions should improve as accessible data accumulate for training.
On cooling, the phenylglycine separates as an oil which soon crystallises when rubbed. are required), and the clear solution is then evaporated to dryness on the water bath.
Sythesis Of N
The crystalline material is kept cool in ice for some time, collected at the pump, and washed with a little ice-cold water. Reference: Laboratory methods of organic chemistry, L.
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Techniques have been developed to produce carbon nanotubes in sizable quantities, including arc discharge, laser ablation, high-pressure carbon monoxide disproportionation, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD).
These targets required a total of eight particular retrosynthetic routes and nine specific process configurations.
The software and platform herein represent a milestone on the path toward fully autonomous chemical synthesis, where routes still require human input and process development.