Sarbanes Oxley Essays

Sarbanes Oxley Essays-46
Using empirical measures of financial statement comparability, studies confirm that comparability plays an important role in analyst following, audit fees, credit risk, acquisition decisions, stock price volatility, the cost of debt, the cost of equity, and cash holdings.This dissertation, investigates the impact of comparability on trade credit, earnings management through classification shifting, and on non-Big4 auditors.It is by and large called the Sarbanes-Oxley ( SOX ) Act and was put in topographic point in order to modulate the answerability of fiscal studies and prevent hazards happening However, the deployment of SOX conformity costs a batch of money, resources and attempts.

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Privacy laws have existed for years in Europe, but the United States has been seeing an increase in network security compliance laws in recent years.

The litany includes the Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Act of 2002, the California Database Protection Act (SB 1386) of 2001, the Gramm Leach Bliley (GLB) Act of 1999, and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 19.

The creation of these laws generally follows three steps: In Step (2), regulators attempt to bring those externalities into the organization.

By passing laws and mandating compliance, they introduce an additional fear to the organizations and motivate them to implement additional security measures.

The results presented in my third essay show that companies audited by non-Big4 auditors are less comparable than the companies audited by Big4 auditors.

Non-Big4 auditors are thus less likely to be able to apply the same audit process to multiple clients.But the adverse effects of privacy loss are borne more by those whose privacy has been breached.In economics, this is known as an "externality"; an effect of an organizational decision that don't affect the organization.So the end result is Step (3): a negotiation between the organizations affected by the laws and the regulators entrusted with enforcing the laws. More important than the specific list of countermeasures is a process of continual security improvement.An organization needs to be able to defend itself against a lawsuit saying: "We're implementing these industry-standard processes. We may not be perfect today, but we're continually getting better." As a security professional, I applaud these kinds of regulations.The results presented in my second essay show that managers’ earnings management through classification shifting is significantly influenced by the degree of financial statement comparability with other firms.I also find that comparable firms engage in less classification shifting and that the impact of comparability is more pronounced after the passage of the Sarbanes Oxley Act.Comparability is a central feature of financial reporting systems.Comparability is defined by FASB (2010, 19) as “the qualitative characteristic that enables users to identify and understand similarities in, and differences among, items.” The Accounting Principles Board ranked comparability as one of the most important objectives of financial reporting and Generally Accepted Accounting Principles have underscored the importance of comparability for the past four decades.For other uses you need to obtain permission from the rights-holder(s).It's been said that all business-to-business sales are motivated by either fear or greed.

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