Problem Solving Framework

Problem Solving Framework-75
1977; Anonymous, 1980; Council on Environmental Quality, 1978; Fritz et al., 1980; Holling, 1978; Larkin, 1984; Rosenberg et al., 1981; Sanders et al., 1980; Sharma et al., 1976; States et al., 1978; Walters, in press; Ward, 1978) and in particular on a recent Canadian review (Beanlands and Duinker, 19831.

1977; Anonymous, 1980; Council on Environmental Quality, 1978; Fritz et al., 1980; Holling, 1978; Larkin, 1984; Rosenberg et al., 1981; Sanders et al., 1980; Sharma et al., 1976; States et al., 1978; Walters, in press; Ward, 1978) and in particular on a recent Canadian review (Beanlands and Duinker, 19831.

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Table 1 makes it clear that deficiencies in environmental impact assessment are due not only to scientific difficulties the ones with which this chapter is primarily concerned but also to political, administrative, and eco- nomic difficulties.Scientists can help to identify non- obvious goals and can indicate the environmental and economic costs involved.Scientists are also needed to translate environmental goals into scientific objectives, which show what information is needed to answer the major questions and hence help in the planning of studies.Such studies must be carefully planned, because they are expensive in time, money, and effort.This chapter presents a general framework for identifying, scoping, and planning studies of en- vironmental problems.As in any research plan, scientific objectives are based not only on the need for particular information, but also on how easily that information can be obtained.The issues on which environmental goals are based are specified in part by law and in part by public concern (see Table 24.Attempts to achieve a goal sometimes have unexpected results.The New Brunswick forest case study shows how attempting to maximize forest timber production on the basis of individual stands might not only fail to maximize yield over the whole forest, but fail to provide consistency in yields over a long period.Harvesting a population for maximal yield can increase the variability of the yield and the likelihood of overharvesting (Chapter 11.Increasing production of an agricultural crop or forest often involves the use of hazardous pesticides (Chapter 24), which can have several deleterious cumulative side effects (Chap- ters 1, 3, and 41.

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