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Many researchers have proposed descriptive models of organizational culture.This paper attempts to cover three of influential theory in the fields, namely the work of Geert Hofstede, Edgar Schein, Daniel Denison."Culture" is no longer a unfamiliar concept to people.
Internal Focus (Involvement Consistency): An organization with a strong and consistent system of internal integration, which results in high employee satisfaction and product quality.
Flexibility (Adaptability Involvement): An organization with quick response to the market and high focus on its employees, hence, creativity and innovation are strongly encouraged.
Denison’s research and survey have indicated if an organizational score high in these four key points, they are likely to have high level of competency.
Orientations and outcomes of an organization would depends on the one or two points they excel at.
In the middle of the Schein model, norms and values which are the social principles, goals and standards define what the member of the organization cares about and the unwritten rules that all the members are expected to follow under certain situations.
Organizational Culture Assignment
More tangible, more visible than the two above, artifacts are the members’ expression of the values, norms as well as assumptions such as rituals, ceremonies, artworks etc.
untitled (Levine - 1993) In a nutshell, culture can be view as a system of what a group of people have in common or share with each other.
Its elements vary from the way they eat to how they value and believe things.
The iceberg has some sections are visible while a larger part is harder to be seen.
In a similar way, we can observe, recognize and identify some aspects of culture but the rest which occupy a larger part can only be imagined, reckoned or apprehended.