The copyist made many mistakes and omitted some passages.
The play was republished within the next two years.
A tragedy is a dignified work in which the main character undergoes a struggle and suffers a downfall.
In Shakespeare's plays, the main character of a tragedy is usually a person of noble heritage.
"Not a mouse stirring" (1.1.13), Francisco reports as he leaves.
Two other men, Horatio and Marcellus, arrive a moment later.Hamlet suffers great mental anguish over the death of his father, the marriage of his mother to the suspected murderer (Claudius, the brother of the dead king), and the clash between his moral sense and his desire for revenge against his father's murderer. Some Shakespeare interpreters contend that he really does suffer a mental breakdown. Circumstances make him an enemy of Hamlet, and they duel to the death in a fencing match near the end the play.Hamlet is highly intelligent and well liked by the citizens, although at times he can be petty and cruel. The play centers on him and his effort to avenge the murder of his father. She continues as queen of Denmark after she marries Claudius. At the end of the play, he recites immortal lines: "Good night, sweet prince, / And flights of angels sing thee to thy rest! As a man who reacts to circumstances quickly, with a minimum of reflection on the meaning and possible outcome of his actions, Laertes contrasts sharply with the pensive and indecisive Hamlet and, thus, serves as his foil.In 1623, friends of Shakespeare (deceased by this time) published an authentic version of , with minor editorial changes in some editions.No reliable record exists of the date and place of the first performance of the play.Seneca, a tutor to Emperor Nero (AD 37-68), wrote plays that described in detail the grisly horror of murder and revenge.After Elizabethans began translating Seneca's works in 1559, writers read and relished them, then wrote plays imitating them.It is on the resund strait separating the Danish island of Sjaelland (Zealand) from the Swedish province of Skne and linking the Baltic Sea in the south to the Kattegat Strait in the north. Modern Elsinore, or Helsingr, is directly west of a Swedish city with a similar name, Helsingborg (or Hlsingborg).Within the city limits of Elsinore is Kronborg Castle, said to be the model for the Elsinore Castle of Shakespeare's play.Another antagonist is an abstract one: Hamlet's indecisiveness in acting against Claudius.At midnight behind the battlements at the top of Elsinore castle in eastern Denmark, an officer named Bernardo arrives to relieve Francisco, another officer who has been standing guard in the frigid air during an uneventful watch.