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In the absence of coherent international legal order, law cannot provide the sole basis for humanitarian intervention.
In the debate over humanitarian intervention, moral questions cannot be divorced from political, strategic, and prudential questions.
The normative perspective usually found in contemporary literature on humanitarian intervention is based on international law and rights, but many political and ethical issues are automatically involved in any discussions on humanitarian interventions or human rights.
Such interventions have been multilateral and based on cooperation among various governments on the basis of short and long-term goals.
Humanitarian interventions, however, have never been purely humanitarian and can be explained both in terms of idealism and realism.
What remains absent from both international law and practice, however, are clear rules on how we decide when such collective violence is justified, whose obligation and right it is to intervene and what limits and sanctions exist to restrain the behaviour of those who intervene, or to punish those who intervene without international agreement.
The problem in all humanitarian interventions is that those powers with the capacity to apply force at a distance for humanitarian or other ends are generally also those with economic and strategic interests overseas and are often also states which refuse any cosmopolitan restraint on their own military action.
By the end of the twentieth century, humanitarian intervention had become one of the most controversial issues in the debate on international relations and foreign policy.
It entails forced intervention in the territory of another state in the name of humanitarian aid or humanity. intervention in Iraq in 2002 illustrates this shift to “duty to protect” as part of U. efforts in the global war on terrorism to prevent further threats and attacks such as those against the United States on September 11, 2001, which killed nearly three thousand people.
Under this tradition, intervention occurs only to enhance one’s power and not to protect human rights per se.
The basis for intervention lies in the ability to intervene and not in the right to do so.