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Fry), but because of space limitations they almost always omit some of the items included in the earlier work.Wescott 1985, Wright 2002, and Sherk 2011 are the work of librarians, and these efforts have occasionally been embellished by librarian-authored journal articles on film music bibliography (for example, Melissa Goldsmith in Choice and Desmond Maley in Canadian Association of Music Libraries Review).
The collections of source readings listed in the subsections are for the most part carefully annotated, and the interviews with composers are for the most part in “journalistic” style.
All the materials need to be read with a scrupulous critical eye, of course, but even the most outrageously opinionated of them add considerable resonance to what might otherwise be dry analyses of film music.
Because of their diversity of topics, well-edited anthologies serve both as useful entry points for persons new to the field of film music and as valuable sources of stimuli for persons deeply immersed in it.
Some anthologies (e.g., Powrie and Stilwell 2006; Conrich and Tincknell 2006; Goldmark, et al.
Notwithstanding the pioneering effort of Limbacher 1974, the very idea of film-music source readings—that is, materials generated not from a distance by academics but, rather, by journalists, film music practitioners, and others working close to the scene—is quite new.
Illustrative of the apparent fact that film music studies is an increasingly “hot” field of scholarly activity, it should be noted that three of the four items mentioned in this section (Cooke 2010; Wierzbicki, et al.The ten subsections grouped under the heading Specialized Studies, which includes literature on the film-related areas of television and video games, represent only the most prominent of the field’s subcategories.The section labeled Early Studies deals not with studies of the early period of film music, but, rather, with studies of film music that appeared relatively early in the field’s history; the section labeled Region-Specific Studies deals for the most part with studies focused on film music in various ways geographically distant from the Hollywood mainstream.1909, when advice columns on film accompaniment (likely for solo piano) began to appear in the numerous trade magazines that sprang up to serve the needs of the cartel-linked companies that provided one-reel films to nickelodeon-style cinemas.Film music was for the most part professionalized after World War I, when one-reel films were replaced by multireel features, and when the typical venue for films changed from the small nickelodeon to the capacious “movie palace” that required accompaniments played by an orchestra or by a single performer at the newly invented instrument called the “theater organ”; accordingly, the literature shifted from practical articles to a combination of critical commentaries and “human interest” stories centered on music directors for large urban cinemas.Some journals (for example, Music and the Moving Image, cited under Journals) have lately featured annual bibliographies listing items published in single years.The number of recently launched peer-reviewed journals devoted exclusively to film music or music in other image-based media is indicative of the field’s growth, and acceptance, since the turn of the 21st century.In all cases, the anthologies’ content represents not a summary but, rather, a sampling of current work.The earliest bibliographies listed here—Zuckerman 1950 and Sharples 1978—appeared in film journals and date from long before film music became a field of scholarly endeavor; later bibliographies typically build on what has come before (Stilwell 2002 springs directly from Marks 1979, for example, and Pool and Wright 2011 is an updating of an earlier work by Wright and Stephen M.Books that sing the praises of famous composers and famous film scores have been in circulation, with a fair amount of commercial success, since the mid-1970s (for example, books by Tony Thomas and Mark Evans).Perhaps due to the rise of film music scholarship in the 1980s and 1990s (beginning especially with Gorbman 1987 and Kalinak 1992), books that attempt to explain film music in general (e.g., Duncan 2003, Larsen 2007, Chion 2009, Kalinak 2010) are a more recent phenomenon.