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The practice of philosophy, especially in the analytic tradition, places emphasis on precision of terms and clarity of concepts and ideas.
This development, along with other factors including the philosophical insights on the nature and meaning of language offered by Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889–1951) and the rise of a pragmatic version of naturalism offered by W. By the 1970s verificationism virtually collapsed, and philosophical views that had been suppressed, including those having to do with religion and religious language, were once again fair game for philosophical discourse.
With the work of certain analytic philosophers of religion, including Basil Mitchell (1917–2011), H. Farmer (1892–1981), Alvin Plantinga (1932–), Richard Swinburne (1934–), and John Hick (1922–), religious language and concepts were revived and soon became accepted arenas of viable philosophical and religious discourse and debate.
The language games of the religions reflect the practices and forms of life of the various religious adherents; religious statements should not be taken as providing literal descriptions of a reality that somehow lies beyond those activities.
Some non-realists have been highly critical of religion, such as Sigmund Freud (1856–1939).
When logical positivism became prominent mid-century, philosophy of religion as a discipline became suspect.
By the latter half of the twentieth century, however, many philosophers came to the conclusion that the positivists’ radical empiricist claims and verificationist criteria of meaning were problematic or self-refuting. Quine (1908–2000), caused logical positivism to wane.The implication is that statements about them can and do provide correct predications of the behavior of Allah and Brahman and so forth.If Allah or Brahman do not actually exist, assertions about them would be false.There are a number of themes that fall under the domain of philosophy of religion as it is commonly practiced in academic departments in North America and Europe.The focus here will be limited to six: (1) religious language and belief, (2) religious diversity, (3) concepts of God / Ultimate Reality, (4) arguments for and against the existence of God, (5) problems of evil and suffering, and (6) miracles.Non-realists have noted the alleged failure of realism to provide evidences or justifications for the truths of any particular religion, or of religion in general, and argue that projects in natural theology—the attempt to demonstrate the existence of God from evidence found in the natural world—are abject failures.Another point made by non-realists is that, since religious claims and practices are always done within a particular human context, and since the mind structures all perception within that context, the meanings of these claims are determined and limited by that context.An important figure who had much influence on the development of religious non-realism was Ludwig Wittgenstein.In his later works, Wittgenstein understood language to be not a fixed structure directly corresponding to the way things actually are, but rather a human activity susceptible to the vicissitudes of human life and practice.For Wittgenstein, this is true in all forms of discourse, including religious discourse.In speaking of God or other religious terms or concepts, their meanings have more to do with their use than with their denotation.