At first it was believed that technological development was largely a matter of transferring the equipment from the countries that had it, to the less developed ones.
What has been learned, however, is that technology does not occur in a vacuum.
The transition of many of the remaining traditional cultures began to occur in earnest after World War II.
There was the feeling by some that they had been left behind and they had to catch up.
China has also announced plans to invest USD 411 billion in upgrading its telecommunications systems to 5G between 20.
China is well on its way to being a global leader in key emerging and digital technologies.In other words, when a traditional culture shift to a contemporary one there will be changes across the board.The changes are cultural, social and psychological with corresponding changes in “…attitudes, the thoughts, the values, the beliefs, and the behavior of the people who are affected…”.It did not matter whether they were Nationalists or revolutionaries; there was no intent to pattern China after any other country.“They had an ambivalent attitude toward their country’s past and its traditional society, condemning some aspects and praising others.Challenges for Europe.” Click here to download this MERICS Paper on China as PDF or read the Executive Summary below.The reach of Chinese IT companies into global digital infrastructure is raising growing concerns in Europe.China's efforts at home and abroad to become a global leader in digital technologies is a challenge for Europe.The ambitions of telecommunications giant Huawei to participate in building European 5G networks are just one example of many, say MERICS researchers Kristin Shi-Kupfer and Mareike Ohlberg, authors of a new MERICS study, "China's digital rise.Large and partially state-backed companies like Huawei, Alibaba or Tencent are already involved Europe-wide in telecommunications networks, data centers and online payment systems.The introduction of the new telecommunications standard 5G will likely contribute to Huawei’s hard- and software becoming yet more entangled in Europe’s critical infrastructure.