Argumentative essay assignments generally call for extensive research of literature or previously published material.
In the first paragraph of an argument essay, students should set the context by reviewing the topic in a general way.
Next the author should explain why the topic is important (exigence) or why readers should care about the issue.
It is not the student’s job to point out how other positions are wrong outright, but rather to explain how other positions may not be well informed or up to date on the topic.
It is at this point of the essay that students may begin to struggle.